Annotated Bibliography

Journal Articles

Banks, J. (1993). Multicultural education: Historical development, dimensions, and practice. (L. Darling-Hammond, Ed.) Review of Research in Education, 19, 3-49.

  • At-risk students now serves as a euphemism for culturally deprived.

Braskamp, L., Engberg, M., Mark, E. (2011). How college can influence the development of a global perspective. Liberal Education, 97(3-4), 34-39.

Braskamp, L.A. (2009, November). Internationalizing a campus: A framework for assessing its progress. Journal of College & Character, X(7).

Chavez, A.F., Guido-DiBrido, F. & Mallory, S.L. (2003). Learning to value the “other”. A framework of individual diversity development. Journal of College Student Development, 44(4), 453-469.

Chen, G.M. & Starosta, W.J. (1996). Intercultural communication competence: A synthesis. Communication Yearbook, 19, 353-384.

Childs, D.J. (2014). “Let’s talk about race”: Exploring racial stereotypes using popular culture in social studies classrooms. Social Studies, 105(6), 291-300.

Donovan, B.M. (2015). Reclaiming race as a topic of the U.S. biology textbook curriculum. Science Education, 99(6), 1092-1117.

Gay, G. (2013). Teaching to and through cultural diversity. Curriculum Inquiry, 43(1).

  • Diversity: race, culture and ethnicity; gender, sexual orientation, social class, linguistic
  • CRT is more that teaching accurate information about ethnic and cultural diversity it teaches TO cultural diversity to help students acquire more accurate knowledge about the lives, cultures, contributions, experiences and challenges of different ethnic and racial groups in society.
  • Connect in-school learning with out-of-school living; Develop student agency, efficacy and empowerment.

Hall, S. (1996). The global, the local and the return of ethnicity. In C. Lemert (Ed.), Social theory: The multicultural, global and classic readings (pp. 459-464). Boulder, CO: Westview Press.

Han, H.S., Vomvoridi-Ivanović, E., Jacobs, J., Karanxha, Z., Lypka, A., Topdemir, C., & Feldman, A. (2014). Culturally responsive pedagogy in higher education: A collaborative self-study. Studying Teacher Education, 10(3), 290–312.

Jones, C., & Shorten-Gooden, K. (2003). Shifting: The double lives of Black women in America. New York, NY: Harper Collins.

King, P. and Baxter-Magolda, M. (2005). A development model of intercultural maturity. Journey of College Student Development, 571-592.

Klinger, J.K., & Vaughn, S. (1999). Promoting reading comprehension, content learning, and English acquisition through Collaborative Strategic Reading (CSR). The Reading Teacher, 52, 738-747.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Teaching in dangerous times: Culturally relevant approaches to teacher assessment. Journal of Negro Education, 67(3), 255-267.

  • Notions of regularity put particular persons in position of power and may cause unconscious posturing that prevents them from recognizing their own culture as culture.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). Toward a theory of culturally relevant pedagogy. American Educational Research Journal, 32(3), 465-491.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1995). But that’s just good teaching! The case for culturally relevant pedagogy. Theory into Practice, 34, 159-165.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education? Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7-24.

Liggett, T. (2008). Frames of reference: The impact of race on teaching strategy and classroom discussion. Urban Review, 40(5), 386-402.

  • Understanding one’s own cultural identity is important because individual identity has “cultural orientations that shape the ways in which [one thinks] about values, beliefs, communication style (modes of politeness/formality), historical perspectives, art, music, family, rituals (graduation, sport team rallies), rites of passages (notable birthdays), and other social group activities.” p. 397

Maye, D., & Day, B. (2012). Teacher identities: The fingerprint of culturally relevant pedagogy for students at risk. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 78(2), 19-26.

McMahon, M. (2011). International education: Educating for a global future. Edinburgh, Scotland: Dunedin Academic Press.

Oxfam. (2006). Education for global citizenship: A guide for schools. Retrieved from

Paris, L., & Decker, D. (2012). Sex role stereotypes: Does business education make a difference? Gender in Management: An International Journal, 27(1), 36-50.

Reysen, S., & Katzarska-Miller, I. (2013). A model of global citizenship: Antecedents and outcomes. Journal of International Psychology, 48(5), 858-879.

Schmeichel, M. (2012). Good Teaching? An examination of culturally relevant pedagogy as an equity practice. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 44(2), 211-231.

Sue, D. W., Capodilupo, C. M., Torino, G. C., Bucceri, J. M., Holder, A. B., Nadal, K. L., & Esquilin, M. (2007). Racial microaggressions in everyday life: Implications for clinical practice. American Psychologist62(4), 271-286.

Villegas, A.M. (1998). School failure and cultural mismatch: Another view. Urban Review, 20(4), 253-265.

Webb, J., Wilson, B., Corbett, D., & Mordecai, R. (1993). Understanding caring in context: Negotiating borders and barriers. The Urban Review, 25(1), 33-34.

Wlodkowski, R. J. & Ginsberg, M. B. (1995). A framework for culturally responsive teaching. Educational Leadership, 53(1), 17-21.

  • Rather than trying to know what to do to students, we must work with students to interpret and deepen their existing knowledge and enthusiasm for learning.
  • HiEd influenced by extrinsic reinforcement: testing, competitive assessment procedures, grades, grade point averages, eligibility; Perception that humans will strive to learn if they are externally awarded or punished for lack of it.
  • Intrinsic Motivation Framework: 1. Establish inclusion (learning environment classroom community) 2. Developing attitude (personal relevance and choice) 3. Enhancing meaning (meaningful learning experiences connected to student perspectives and values) 4. Engendering competence (students are effective in learning what they value).


Bennett, M.J. (2004). Becoming interculturally competent. In J. Wurzel (Ed.), Towards multiculturalism: A reader in multicultural education (2nd ed.) (pp. 62-77). Newton, MA: Intercultural Resource Corporation.

Longerbeam, S. D. & Chávez, A. F. (2016). Going inward: The role of cultural introspection in college teaching. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Chavez, A. F., & Longerbeam, S. D. (2016). Teaching across cultural strengths: A guide to balancing integrated individuated cultural frameworks in college teaching. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Costagno, A. (2014). Educated in whiteness. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Press.

Rendon, L. (2009). Sentipensante (sensing/thinking) pedagogy: Educating for wholeness, social justice and liberation. Sterling, VA: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research and practice (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

  • Defining culture: values and beliefs, customs and traditions, heritages and contributions, experiences and perspectives.
  • Routine: To filter curriculum content and teaching strategies through cultural frames or reference to make them more personally meaningful and relevant to master; this has been the norm for middle-class European Americans CRT applies this routine to all students.

Berube, A. (2010). State of metropolitan America. Metropolitan Policy Program. Washington, D.C.: Brookings.

  • National and local data on college access and completion including economic influence on workforce trends and projections; Sections specific to Phoenix including Hispanic students.

Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum.

Ginsberg, M. & Wlodkowski, R. (2009). Diversity & motivation: Culturally Responsive teaching in college. New York, NY: New York University.

  • Rationale and examples of CRT in higher education with recommendations for teaching and advisement. Connection to Garner’s Multiple Intelligences.

Paris, D. & Alim, H.S. (Eds.). (2017). Culturally sustaining pedagogies: Teaching and learning for justice in a changing world (language and literacy series). New York, NY: Teachers College Press.

Yosso, T. (2006). Critical race counterstories along the chicana/chicano educational pipeline. New York, NY: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • Merging data and theory to expose racism and it’s function to limit minoritized groups.

Ogby, J. (1995). Understanding cultural diversity and learning. In J. Banks, & C. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of research on multicultural education. New York, NY: MacMillan.

  • According to the research, teaching that ignores student norms of behavior and communication provokes students resistance, while teaching that is responsive prompts students involvement.

Other Online Resources

Perkins, M. (2009). Straight talk on race: Challenging the stereotypes in kids’ books. Retrieved from

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