Annotated Bibliography

Peer Reviewed Academic Journals

Gay, G. (2013). Teaching To and Through Cultural Diversity. Curriculum Inquiry, 43(1).

  • Diversity: race, culture and ethnicity; gender, sexual orientation, social class, linguistic
  • CRT is more that teaching accurate information about ethnic and cultural diversity it teaches TO cultural diversity to help students acquire more accurate knowledge about the lives, cultures, contributions, experiences and challenges of different ethnic and racial groups in society.
  • Connect in-school learning with out-of-school living; Develop student agency, efficacy and empowerment.

Maye, D., & Day, B. (2012). Teacher Identities: The Fingerprint of Culturally Relevant Pedagogy for Students At Risk. Delta Kappa Gamma Bulletin, 78(2), 19-26.

Liggett, T. (2008). Frames of reference: The impact of race on teaching strategy and classroom discussion. Urban Review, 40(5), 386-402.

  • Understanding one’s own cultural identity is important because individual identity has “cultural orientations that shape the ways in which [one thinks] about values, beliefs, communication style (modes of politeness/formality), historical perspectives, art, music, family, rituals (graduation, sport team rallies), rites of passages (notable birthdays), and other social group activities.” p. 397

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Teaching in dangerous times: Culturally relevant approaches to teacher assessment. Journal of Negro Education, 67(3), 255-267.

  • Notions of regularity put particular persons in position of power and may cause unconscious posturing that prevents them from recognizing their own culture as culture.

Wlodkowski, R. J., & Ginsberg, M. B. (1995, September). A Framework for Culturally Responsive Teaching. Educational Leadership, 53(1), 17-21.

  • Rather than trying to know what to do to students, we must work with students to interpret and deepen their existing knowledge and enthusiasm for learning.
  • HiEd influenced by extrinsic reinforcement: testing, competitive assessment procedures, grades, grade point averages, eligibility; Perception that humans will strive to learn if they are externally awarded or punished for lack of it.
  • Intrinsic Motivation Framework: 1. Establish inclusion (learning environment classroom community) 2. Developing attitude (personal relevance and choice) 3. Enhancing meaning (meaningful learning experiences connected to student perspectives and values) 4. Engendering competence (students are effective in learning what they value).

Banks, J. (1993). Multicultural Education: Historical Development, Dimensions, and Practice. (L. Darling-Hammond, Ed.) Review of Research in Education, 19.

  • At-risk students now serves as a euphemism for culturally deprived.


Longerbeam, S. D. & Chávez, A. F. (2016). Going inward: The role of cultural introspection in college teaching. New York, NY: Peter Lang Publishing.

Chavez, A. F., & Longerbeam, S. D. (2016). Teaching Across Cultural Strengths: A Guide to Balancing Integrated Individuated Cultural Frameworks in College Teaching. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Costagno, A. (2014). Educated in Whiteness. Minneapolis, MN: Minnesota Press.

Rendon, L. (2009). Sentipensante (Sensing/Thinking) Pedagogy: Educating for Wholeness, Social Justice and Liberation. Sterling, Virginia: Stylus Publishing, LLC.

Gay, G. (2010). Culturally responsive teaching: Theory, research and practice (2nd ed.). New York: Teachers College Press.

  • Defining culture: values and beliefs, customs and traditions, heritages and contributions, experiences and perspectives.
  • Routine: To filter curriculum content and teaching strategies through cultural frames or reference to make them more personally meaningful and relevant to master; this has been the norm for middle-class European Americans CRT applies this routine to all students.

Berube, A. (2010). State of Metropolitan America. Metropolitan Policy Program. Washington, D.C.: Brookings.

  • National and local data on college access and completion including economic influence on workforce trends and projections; Sections specific to Phoenix including Hispanic students.

Ginsberg, M. & Wlodkowski, R. (2009). Diversity & Motivation: Culturally Responsive Teaching in College. New York University.

  • Rationale and examples of CRT in higher education with recommendations for teaching and advisement. Connection to Garner’s Multiple Intelligences.

Yosso, T. (2006). Critical Race Counterstories Along the Chicana/Chicano Educational Pipeline. New York, New York: Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  • Merging data and theory to expose racism and it’s function to limit minoritized groups.

Ogby, J. (1995). Understanding Cultural Diversity and Learning. In J. Banks, & C. Banks (Eds.), Handbook of Research on Multicultural Education. New York: MacMillan.

  • According to the research, teaching that ignores student norms of behavior and communication provokes students resistance, while teaching that is responsive prompts students involvement.